on Life in Victorian England
Expectations: The Text -
- This is a version of the novel which is presented chapter by
Web - http://www.victorianweb.org/
- Subtitled "Literature, history & culture in the age of
site is the major place on the Web to get information about the
era (1837-1901) in England and the entire world. Categories include:
Victorians; Political history; Social history; Gender matters;
Religion; Science; Technology; Genre & Technique (literature);
Visual arts; Theatre & popular entertainment; Victorian Web books;
Victorian texts; Before Victoria; and Related WWW resources. Individual
pages at this site are referenced below where appropriate.
- Page devoted to architectural styles, individual architects and
theory of the period.
Buildings and Monuments illustrated in the Victorian Web -
- A list, with links, to pictures of various buildings and other
found in nineteenth century London.
Victorians Wore -
- Pages on the fashions of the period generally as well as
women's, men's, children's, and laboring classes' clothing.
law and criminal justice system
Cornhill, Great Expectations, and The Convict System in
- This is an essay by a college student on the prisons in Dickens'
"Charles Dickens's Great Expectations often refers to English
and convicts. In The Cornhill Magazine, the article titled "The English
Convict System" provides insight into prisons in Victorian England at
time of the book's publication in 1861. The fact that Dickens set Great
Expectations at least a decade or more before 1861 led me to
into the differences of the convict system in 1861 and a decade earlier
that may explain the advantages of the earlier system to Dickens's
in Victorian Britain: Suggested Readings -
- A great bibliography of books and other resources on the criminal
system in Victorian England.
Metropolitan Police -
- A short article about the history of the London police in the
Acts - http://www.victorianweb.org/history/hist2.html
- The three Reform Acts, of 1832, 1867, and 1884, all extended
to previously disfranchised citizens. This page explains how the Reform
Acts changed the political makeup of Great Britain.
schools & education
- Education in Victorian England - http://victorianweb.org/history/education/index.html
- This page on the Victorian Web gives links to specific topics on education in Victorian England. Links are provided to articles about education in general, public schools (British private schools), and universities.
- The Public
School Experience in Victorian Literature - http://victorianweb.org/history/education/publicschool2.html
- In England private schools are know as "public" schools. "Seven
schools, Eton, Harrow, Westminster, Rugby, Winchester, Charterhouse,
Shrewsbury, and two London day schools, St. Pauls and Merchant
were defined as "Public Schools" in the 1860s by the educational
commission." This is a short article about those schools with picture
links to other related sites.
- Schools for the poorest children, known as "ragged schools," were
of the government-supported school system in Great Britain.
Anti-Technological Bias of Victorian Education and Britain's Economic
Decline - http://victorianweb.org/history/education/barnett.html
- Critique of the British public school for its elitist,
effect on the later state school system.
- The 1870 Education Act
- CThe law that established the British "public" public school system for ater state school system.
Children in Victorian
Labor - http://www.victorianweb.org/history/hist8.html
- Short article, with picture, of child labor conditions during the
of the Industrial Revolution.
and Out in Victorian London -
- This page from the Masterpiece Theatre site has an essay on
the "Poor Laws." The article is meant to accompany a television
of "Oliver Twist" by Charles Dickens.
and Baby Farming in Victorian England -
- This heavily footnoted essay discusses illegitimacy and the
children for adoption in 19th century England.
in the Mines - http://www.cmhrc.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/citm.htm
- This page provides an introduction to the text of Royal
of 1842 about conditions in the mining regions of England. The reports
themselves are not available online but each report (from the different
regions) does have an outline and list of tables and illustrations.
- Workhouse Children - http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/IRworkhouse.children.htm
- This short article describes conditions in British workhouses and provides links to letters and interviews of people who actually were part of the workhouse system.
imperialism in the nineteeth century
British Empire & Commonwealth Museum -
- This website, maintained by a museum in Bristol, England, has a
set of links to such items as a timeline and countries of the Empire
History: The British Empire, an Overview -
- Articles accessible from this page include: A Timeline of British
British Empire: An Introduction; The Industrial Revolution, Textiles,
Empire; Ambivalence, Economy, and Empire in Victorian Britain;
Imperial Policies; Why did the British Empire expand so rapidly between
1870 and 1900?; and The Role of the Victorian Army. Links are also
to individual countries of the Empire and other related resources.
Imperial Archive -
- "This site provides information for all those interested in the
of the British imperial process on literature of the 19th and 20th
Using colonial discourse and post-colonial theory as a point of
some pages examine the British idea of 'Empire' and the colonial
in a selected range of 19th-century authors and their work; others
20th-century texts, in an attempt to understand how imperialism
literary texts produced in Britain's former colonies. The pages are
by students working on the MA degree in Modern Literary Studies in the
School of English at the Queen's University of Belfast. The site is
and will include contributions from future generations of MA students
other writers and themes."
- Although this article is mainly about apprenticeship in the U.S.
describe the background of the system as practiced in Great Britain.
of American Education Web Site)
Apprentices -- http://www.mdlp.co.uk/resources/general/poor_law.htm
- This is a short paragraph from a site which explains the British
- Apprenticeship -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apprenticeship
- This article from Wikipedia goes into some detail about the concept and practice of apprenticeship. Most of the article is about current appreticeship programs in the U.K., Germany and France.
- Apprenticeship: Past and Present -- http://www.realapprenticeship.com/mcat/mainweb/apprenticeshiphistory.htm
- This article from a trade union in Michigan explains the history of appreticeship in the U.S. Many of the historical details would also apply in England, especially the early history when the American colonies where still part of Great Britain.
- "apprenticeship" & "system" & "britain" Search in Questia - http://www.questia.com/search/apprenticeship-system-britain
- This link is a search in the Questia database of the terms "appreticeship", "system", and "britain". The resulting page finds thousands of references to books and magazines as well as other types of materials. Questia is a scholarly site which the Library subscribes to. If you are asked to login see the librarian for user name and password.
Dickens: Google Directory -
- The Google directory's list of links about the Victorian author
Life of Charles Dickens -
- A book-length bio of the author.
- Charles Dickens on the Victorian Web - http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/dickens/dickensov.html
- Extensive links to information about the author of Great Expectations. (Victorian Web)
Perdue's Charles Dickens Page -
- A very comprehensive website with links to: The novels,
Timeline, Reading Dickens, Dickens' London, Dickens' Christmas, Family
& friends, Dickens in America, and Dickens on the Web.
food and cooking
and Contamination of Food in Victorian England -
- The contamination and adulteration (addition of foreign
food was rampant in 19th century England. This page explains some of
problems associated with the practices. (Victorian Web)
Diet - http://www.victorianweb.org/science/health/health8.html
- This short essay explains some of the aspects of diet, especially
poor, in Victorian England. (Victorian Web)
- In the Victorian
- This page is an online exhibit of equipment and supplies used in
Victorian kitchen. Tools are pictured and their uses are described.
Academy of Sciences)
and Drink in Regency England -
- Although this site covers food of the period just preceding the
era, nevertheless many of the recipes given here were still being used
in Victoria's time and even later. (Personal page)
in Bronte and Dickens -
- Short essay describing the role of food in the novels of two
eminent Victorian writers.
music and dance
Culture and Dress of the Best American Society -
- Although this is an American website the manner discussed here
in Victorian England as well. (From a Victorian Dance site.)
to Wear to Victorian Events -
- Although this would be site appropriate to the Victorian fashion
it is also appropriate here because it describes what the proper
ladies and gentlemen wore at their balls.
Elegant Era: 19th Century Romance -
- This page from a dance ensemble website, has a bit of information
about dances of Victorian England. (Tapestry Historic Dance Ensemble)
century English literature
Century British Literature: Google Directory -
- Some 19th century British authors which have links from this page
Matthew Arnold; Jane Austen; George Lewis Becke; Emily Brontë;
Butler; Wilkie Collins; Charles Dickens (of course); Benjamin Disraeli;
George Eliot; George Gissing; Thomas Hardy; James Hogg; E.W. Hornung;
Kingsley; Rudyard Kipling; Charles Lamb; Edward Lear; Christina
Dante Gabriel Rossetti; Sir Walter Scott; Robert Louis Stevenson;
Makepeace Thackeray; Anthony Trollope; H.G. Wells; and Oscar Wilde.
Century British and Irish Authors -
- This is page of links to dozens of authors of the era. The over
are listed in chronological order.
on the Gentleman -
- "John Henry Cardinal Newman, the most famous English
Catholicism of the nineteenth century, included the following
of the gentleman in his treatise on university education for Roman
who had only recently received civil rights."
Class - http://www.victorianweb.org/history/Class.html
- This article discusses social class but gives scant attention to
Eyre and North and South on Social Class -
- This article compares the way social classes are handled by the
of two novels, Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Brontë and North
and South by Elizabeth Gaskell.
in Victorian Culture and Society: Prejudice and Policy -
- The description of a course about Victorian society includes a
of the role of class distinctions.
Religious Climate of Victorian England -
- This essay is about the religious climate of Great Britain in the
century includes discussion of class differences among the clergy and
royalty from 1776
Official Website of the British Monarchy -
- Start with "page
Hanoverians, the family which took over the British monarchy in
and includes the four King Georges and a William. They reigned until
when Victoria assumed the throne. Under "Choose an option" at the top
the page explore George III, George IV, and William IV to cover the
in the assignment. For Victoria's reign click on "Saxe-Coberg-Gotha" or
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Chin Library @ Redwood High School, 395 Doherty Drive, Larkspur, CA