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There are several different citation styles in use at Redwood. Many departments use MLA style, which was developed by the Modern Language Association, the association of college English professors. The science department uses the style developed by the American Psychological Association (APA style). And many history/social studies teachers use Chicago-style citations.

MLA style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and using the English language in writing. MLA style also provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through parenthetical citation in their essays and Works Cited pages. Writers who properly use MLA also build their credibility by demonstrating accountability to their source material. Most importantly, the use of MLA style can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the purposeful or accidental uncredited use of source material by other writers. If you are asked to use MLA format, be sure to consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th edition, 2009). The MLA publishes the full Handbook online along along with example papers. See the librarian for login information.

The APA also released the most recent edition of its Publication Manual in 2009. They publish an online tutorial on using APA style.

For Chicago-style citations there is a website Chicago Manual of Style Online. Try also the Citation Styles & Format page at the Sonoma State University Library website which includes a link to the Chicago(Turabian) style sheet at The "notes and bibliography"style is preferred by history teachers.

Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab site (OWL) is a great place to get lots of help with writing including MLA- and APA-style guides. Another great site for sample electronic resource citations is at UC Berkeley: Style Sheets for Citing Internet & Electronic Resources.

In general, for print materials APA style varies from MLA style in the placement of the publication date and the fact that it only uses the first initial of an author's name instead of the whole name. MLA has recently changed it's citation style and no longer requires the Web address to be part of the entry. Instead the word "Web." placed before the date of access indicates that the source may be found online.

Two examples
MLA/Chicago = Jones, Jim. How I Created the People's Temple. San Francisco: People's Temple Press, 1972. Print.
APA = Jones, J. (1972). How I Created the People's Temple. San Francisco: People's Temple Press.

For those looking for help making a list, try out one of the following free sites.
NoodleTools - - is a quick and easy site for formating citations in either MLA or APA style. The Tam District libraries have a subscription to NoodleTools which allows our students to set up individual accounts on the site.
Bibme - - this site actually finds records of specific texts, websites, films, etc. and then automatically creates the citiation entry. Provides MLA, APA, Chicago and Turabian styles.
EasyBib - - enables you to fill in the various parts of a citation and then formats it for you. It provides MLA style only. To get APA style you need to subcribe to EasyBib Pro.

Citation Machine - - produces APA, MLA and Chicago formats automatically. To start click on the format you want to use in the top left column.

One author
Two or three authors
More than three authors
Anonymous work
Corporate author
Part of a book
Translated work
Edited work
Work in an anthology
General encyclopedia article
Other multivolume reference
Film or Video
TV or Radio
Journal, Magazine Newspaper
Legal document
Map or chart
Government publication
Full-text articles
Scholarly project
Web site
Article in an online database, e.g. encyclopedia
Personal site
Book published online
Article in an online journal
FTP, telnet and gopher sites
E-mail, listserv and newslist
Online Discussion



According to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers:

In MLA documentation style, you acknowledge your sources by keying brief parenthetical citations in your text to an alphabetical list of works that appears at the end of the paper. The parenthetical citation that concludes the following sentence is typical of MLA style.

The aesthetic and ideological orientation of jazz underwent considerable scrutiny in the late 1950s and early 1960s (Anderson 7).

The citation “(Anderson 7)” tells readers that the information in the sentence was derived from page 7 of a work named Anderson. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the works-cited list, where, under the name Anderson, they would find the following information.

Anderson, Iain. This Is Our Music: Free Jazz, the Sixties, and American culture. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 2007. Print.

This entry states that the work’s author is Iain Anderson and its title is This Is Our Music: Free Jazz, the Sixties, and American Culture. The remaining information relates, in shortened form, that the work was produced in Philadelphia by the University of Pennsylvania Press in 2007 as a print publication.
The citation in MLA style contains only enough information to enable readers to find the source in the works-cited list. If the author’s name is mentioned in the text, only the page number appears in the citation: “(7).” If more than one work by the author is in the list of works cited, a shortened version of the title is given: “(Anderson, This 7).”
For works which do not have an author use the first word(s) of the title instead.

Shells were used as currency in many Mediterranean countries in the pre-Christian era (“Money” 86).

This citation might refer to the following entry:

“Money.” World Book Encyclopedia. 2010 ed. Print.

SINGLE AUTHOR: For a work with one author, begin with the author's last name, followed by a comma; then give the author's first name, followed by a period
Jones, Jim.
MULTIPLE AUTHORS: For works with two or three authors, name the authors in the order in which they are listed in the source (title page for a book). Reverse the name of only the first author.
Jones, Jim, and Carol Thomas.
Jones, J., Darling, C.W., and Carol Thomas.
For a work with four or more authors, either name all of the authors or name the first author followed by "et al." Latin for “and others”).
Torrigino, Mario, Emily Satterstrom, John Blaber, and Jeff Ryan.
Torrigino, Mario, et al.
CORPORATE AUTHOR: Wehn the author of a print document or a Web site is a corporation, a government agency, or some other organization, begin your entry with the name of the group.
Bank of America.
United States. Dept. of Agriculture.
Redwood High School.
UNKNOWN AUTHOR: When the author of a work is not known, begin with the title of the work. Tiles of articles and other short works, such as brief documents from websites, are put in quotation marks. Title of books and other long works, such as entire websites, are italicized.
Article of other short work

"Media Moguls."
Book or other long work
Project Perseus.
TWO OR MORE WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR: If your list of works cited includes two or more works by the same author, use the author's name only for the first entry. For other entries, use three hyphens followed by a period. The three hyphens must stand for exactly the same name or names as in the first entry. List the titles in alphabetical order ignoring intitial articles.
King, Stephen. Carrie. New York: Doubleday, 1974. Print.
---. Four Past Midnight. New York: Viking, 1990. Print.

BASIC FORMAT FOR A BOOK: For most print books, arrange the information into four units, each followed by a period and one space: the author's name; the title and subtitle, italicized; the place of publication, the publisher, and the date; and medium of publication ("Print").
Take the information about the book from its title page and copyright page (back of the title page); omit terms such as Press, Inc., and Co. except when naming university presses (University of California P, for example). If the copyright page lists more than one date, use the most recent one.

Jones, Jim. How I Created the People's Temple. San Francisco: People's Temple Press, 1972. Print.


AUTHOR WITH A TRANSLATOR: Begin with the name of the author. After the title, write "Trans." (for "Translated by") and the name of the translator.
Allende, Isabel. Zorro. Trans. Margaret Sayers Peden. New York: HarperCollins, 2005. Print.


EDITOR: An entry for a work with an editor is similar to that for a work with an author except that the name is followed by a comma and the abbreviation "ed." for "editor" (or "eds." for editors)
Bristow, Joseph, ed. The Oxford Book of Adventure Stories. New York: Oxfor UP, 1995. Print.
WORK IN AN ANTHOLOGY: Begin with the name of the author of the selectio
AUTHOR WITH AN EDITOR: Begin with the author and title, followed by the name of the editor. In this case the abbreviation "Ed." means "Edited by," so it is the same for one or multiple editors.
Barrett, Karen. Letters from My Father. Ed. Cythea Harrison-Homitz. San Francisco: New Jack, 2007. Print.

Pepin, Ronald E. Foreword. The Saints of Diminished Capacity: Selected Poems, 1972-1997. By Charles Darling. Hartford: Capital Press, 1997. ii-ix. Print.
Borges, Jorge Luis. Ficciones. Trans. Anthony Kerrigan. New York: Grove Press, 1962. Print.
Clement, Jane C., ed. Collected Works of Clint Eastwood. Carmel: Make My Day Press, 1997. Print.
Begin with the name of the author of the selection, not with the name of the editor of the anthology. Then give the title of the selection; the title of the anthology; the name of the editor (preceded by “Ed.” for “Edited by”); publication information; the pages on which the selection appears; and the medium of publication.
Munro, Alice. “The Turkey Season." In Another Part of the Forest: An Anthology of Gay Short Fiction. Ed. Alberto Manguel and Craig Stephenson. New York: Crown, 1994. 84-111. Print. 
When an encyclopedia or a dictionary is well known, simply list the author of the entry (if there is one), the title of the entry (in quotes), the title of the reference work (italicized), the edition number or name (if any), and the date of the edition. No place or publisher is necessary.
Harlow, Henry Robert. “Drawing.” Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropedia. 15th ed. 1988. Print.
“Drawing.” Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Academic ed. 2008. Web. 30 Oct. 2008.
"Guillemot." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 4th ed. 2000. Print.
Volume and page numbers are not necessary because the entries in the source are arranged alphabetically and therefore are easy to locate.
If a reference work is not well known, provide full publication information as well.

"The Mbuti." Peoples of the Earth. Ed. Cerise MacDonald. New York: Grolier, 1975. Print.

ARTICLE IN A MAGAZINE: List, in order, separated by periods, the author’s name; the title of the article, in quotation marks; and the title of the magazine, italicized. Then give the date and the page numbers, separated by a colon. If the magazine is issued monthly, give just the month and year. Abbreviate the names of the months except May, June, and July. Give the medium of publication at the end.
Kennedy, David M. “Victory at Sea.” Atlantic Monthly. March 1999: 51-76. Print.
“What’s a Hoatzin?” Newsweek. 27 Sept. 1993: 72-73. Print.
ARTICLE IN A SCHOLARLY JOURNAL: Separate the volume and issue numbers with a period. Include the medium of publication at the end.
Christie, John S. and Susan Washington. “Garcia Marquez’s Faulknerian Chronicle of the Death Foretold.” Latin American Literary Review 13.3 (Fall 1993): 21-29. Print.
ARTICLE IN A DAILY NEWSPAPER: Begin with the name of the author, if known, followed by the title of the article. Next give the name of the newspaper, the date, and the page numbers (including the section letter). If the article does not appear on consecutive pages, use a plus sign (+) after the page number. Include the medium of publication at the end.
Campbell, Susan. “Are We So Very Different?” Hartford Courant. 1 Dec. 1996, first ed.: A1+. Print.
For a review
Williams, Larry. “Powerful Urban Drama Builds in Bells’ Tense ‘Ten Indians’.” Rev. of Ten Indians, by Madison Smartt Bell. Hartford Courant 1 Dec. 1996: G3. Print.


For the United States Constitution and laws in the United States Code (USC), give the title, section, or article number, as appropriate. Add the medium at the end of the entry for a priont source or before the date of access for an online source. For a US Code item, alphbetize under U, as if United States Code were spelled out.
21 US Code. Sec. 1401a. 1988. Print.
US Const. Art. 1, sec.1. Web. 14 Oct. 2008.
For a legislative act, begin with the name of the act, neither italicized nor in quotation marks. Then provide the act's Public Law number; its Statutes at Large volume and page numberts; its date of enactment; and medium of publication.
Driving a Professor Crazy Act of 1996. 99 Stat. 1496. Print.
For a court case, name the plaintiff and first defendant. Then give the law report number; the court name; the year of the decision; and information about the medium in which you found the case. In a works cited entry, the name of the case is not italicized. (The name of the case is itlaicized in you in-text citation)
Kaun v. Library of California. 154 USPQ 677. CA Supr. Ct. 1999. Print.
[This case is described in the United States Patent Quarterly, page 677 of volume 154]


Title. Chart/Map. Place: Publisher, date. Print.
The Physical World. Map. New York: Rand McNally, 1993. Print.


Treat the government agency as the author, giving the name of the government followed by the name of the agency. For print sources, add the medium at the end of the entry. For online sources, follow the model for an entire website or a short work from a website.
United States. Bureau of the Census. 1990 U.S. Census of Population and Housing. Washington: GPO, 1990. Print.
United States. Dept. of Transportation. Natl. Highway Safety Administration. An Investigation of the Safety Implications of Wireless Communications in Vehicles. Natl. Highway Safety Administration, Nov. 1999. Web. 20 May 2008.


Cite the speaker's name, followed by the title of the lecture (if any), in quotation marks; the organization sponsoring the lecture; the location; the date; and a label such as "Lecture" or "Address."
King, Martin Luther, Jr. “I Have a Dream.” March on Washington. Lincoln Memorial: Washington. 28 August 1963. Address.

INTERVIEW (Personal, Broadcast, or Published)

To cite a personal interview that you conducted, begin with the name of the person interviewed. Then write "Personal interview" or "Telephone interview" followed by the date of the interview.
Brown, Willy. Personal interview. 4 Nov. 1999.
For a radio or television interview begin with the name of the person interviewed, followed by the word "Interview" and the interviewer's name, if relevant. End with information about the program as in a radio or television broadcast.
Schneider, Pamela. Interview. Seniors: What Keeps Us Going. Host Linda Storrow. Natl. Public Radio. WNYC. New York. 11 July 1988. Radio.
For a published interview name the person interviewed, followed by the title of the interview (if there is one). If the interview does not have a title, include the word "Interview" after the interviewee's name. Give the publication information for the work in which the interview was published.
Armstrong, Lance. "Lance in France." Sports Illustrated 28 June 2004: 46+. Print.


Frost, Robert. Letter to John Fitzgerald Kennedy. 5 Dec. 1960.
To cite a letter that you have received, begin with the writer's name and add the phrase "Letter to the author," followed by the date. Add the medium ("MS" for "manuscript," or a handwritten letter, "TS" for for "typescript," for a typed letter).
Angelou, Maya. Letter to the author. 25 Dec. 2001. TS


Begin with the title, italicized. Cite the director ("Dir.") and the lead actors ("Perf.") or narrator ("Narr."); the distributor; the year of the film's release; and medium ("Film," "DVD," "Videocassette").
The Wizard of Oz. Dir. Victor Fleming. Perf. Judy Garland, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, and Jack haley, Frank Morgan, Billy Burke, margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin and the Munchkins. Loew’s Incorporated, 1939. Film.
The Wizard of Oz. Dir. Victor Fleming. Perf. Judy Garland, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, and Jack haley, Frank Morgan, Billy Burke, margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin and the Munchkins. 1939. MGM/UA Home Video, 1989. DVD.


Begin with the title of the radio segment or television episode (if there is one), in quotation marks; then give the title of the program or series, italicized; relevant information about the program, such as the writer ("By"), director ("Dir."), performers ("Perf."), or host ("Host"); the network; the local station (if any) and location; the date of broadcast; and the medium ("Television," or "Radio").
Sixty Minutes. CBS. KPIX, San Francisco. 3 Jan. 1999. Television.
"Elif Shafak: Writing under a Watchful Eye." Fresh Air. Host Terry Gross. Natl. Public Radio. Web. 22 Feb. 2007.



 (See Appendix for list of information suggested by MLA)

[In the following, as for other references in a bibliography, the 2nd and subsequent lines should indented (hanging indent).]

Humanities Style (MLA)

Author, Name. "Title of Document." Title of Complete Work. Name of sponsoring organization. Date of document or most recent revision. Web. Day month year of access <source[optional]>.

Scientific Style (APA)

Author, A. A. (Date of document). "Title of Document." Title of Complete Work. Retrieved [month day, year], from [source: URL]


Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Article.” PeriodicalTitle Issue Date: page(s). Service used. Web. Access date.
Anderson, J. “Keats in Harlem.” New Republic 204.14 8 Apr. 1991: 27. EBSCO. Web. 29 Dec. 2001.


A Guide to for Writing Research Papers Based on Modern Language Association (MLA) Documentation. Humanities Department and Arthur C. Banks, Jr. Library, Capital Community College, 31 May 2000. Web. 28 Mar. 2002.
A Guide to for Writing Research Papers Based on Modern Language Association (MLA) Documentation. (31 May 2000). [Web page posted on Capital Community College (Hartford, Conn.) Web site]. Retrieved Mar. 28, 2002 from the World Wide Web:


Lastname, Firstname, "Title of Article." Title of Encyclopedia. Version or edition. Date of publication. Name of Publisher. Web. (Date of access).
Wharton, Annabel Jane. "Byzantine art." World Book Online. Americas ed. 2002. World Book, Inc. Web. 29 Mar. 2002.


The Avalon Project: Articles of Confederation. 31 Dec. 1969 [1996]. The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Web. 29 Mar. 2002.


Jascot, John. Home page.  29 Mar. Web. 2002.


Du Bois, W. E. B. The Souls of Black Folk. Chicago: A.C. McClurg & Co.; [Cambridge]: University Press John Wilson and Son, 1903;, 1999. Web. 29 Mar. 2002.


Blake, William.  “Earth's Answer.”  Dove Cottage. Web. 29 Mar. 2002.


Fitter, Chris. “The Poetic Nocturne: From Ancient Motif to Renaissance Genre.” Early Modern Literary Studies 3.1 (Sept.1997): 61 pars.  Web. 29 Mar. 2002.


To cite and e-mail message, begin with the witer's mane and the subject line. Then write "Message to" followed by the name of the recipient. End with the date of the message and the medium ("E-mail").

Bruckman, Amy.  “MOOSE Crossing Proposal.” Message to the author. 30 Apr. 1994. E-mail.


Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page four lines below the last textual line. Single-space each entry: double space between entries. Indent first line by five spaces, and continue the next name at the left edge. Endnotes appear at the end of the entire text on a separate page, numbered in order of their occurrence.


xFirstname Lastname. Title (Place: Publisher, date) page(s).


xLastname, page(s).


MLA suggests giving the following information for online sources, including as many items from the list below as are relevant and available

  • 1. Name of the author, editor, compiler, or translator of the source (if available and relevant), reversed for alphabetizing and  followed by an abbreviation, such as ed., if appropriate
  •  2. Title of a poem, short story, article, or similar short work within a scholarly project, database, or periodical (in quotation marks); or title of a posting to a discussion list or forum (taken from the subject line and put in quotation marks), followed by the description Online posting
  • 3. Title of a book (underlined)
  • 4. Name of the editor, compiler, or translator of the text (if relevant and if not cited earlier), preceded by the appropriate abbreviation, such as Ed.
  • 5. Publication information for any print version of the source
  • 6. Title of the scholarly project, database, periodical, or professional or personal site (underlined); or, for a professional or personal site with no title, a description such as Home page
  • 7. Name of the editor of the scholarly project or database (if available)
  • 8. Version number of the source (if not part of the title) or, for a journal, the volume number, issue number, or other identifying number
  • 9. Date of electronic publication, of the latest update, or of posting
  • 10. For a work from a subscription service, the name of the service and--if a library is the subscriber--the name and city (and state abbreviation, if necessary) of the library
  • 11. For a posting to a discussion list or forum, the name of the list or forum
  • 12. The number range or total number of pages, paragraphs, or other sections, if they are numbered
  • 13. Name of any institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the Web site
  • 14. Date when the researcher accessed the source
  • 15. Electronic address, or URL, of the source (in angle brackets<>); or, for a subscription service, the URL of the service's main page (if known) or the keyword assigned by the service, e.g. for AOL

  • Last updated by the Webspinner October 1, 2009.
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