Civil Rights Movement Resources
[Dewey numbers: 301.451; 323.1196; 973.0496]

Most of the links on this page are to Web sites about the post-World War II movement in the U.S. to promote civil rights for Black people. See also the Cybrary's Web page about African Americans.
Other pages in the Cybrary with links to sites about the civil rights of specific groups are: women, Hispanics, gays, and Asians.

 General Resources  Montgomery Bus Boycott  Supreme Court Cases  Lesson Plans
 Little Rock Central H.S.  People Organizations  Calif. SS Standards

General

Civil Rights Movement (Google Directory) http://directory.google.com/Top/Society/History/By_Region/North_America/United_States/Civil_Rights_Movement/
Google's directory of sites about the U.S. civil rights movement.
African-American Collections -  http://www.nyise.org/blackhistory/blkhistory.html
A collection of civil rights links and biographies of famous black Americans. Includes a timeline of the civil rights movement with links to short pages about events from 1954 to 1965.
Civil Rights Movement Veterans- http://www.crmvet.org/
This Web site is intended for "use ... to begin renewing the ties that once bound us together in a beloved community. It will be a place for finding lost friends. It will be an online testimony for documenting what we did in the Freedom Movement, what it meant to us, and what we have done since. It will be a tool for helping fellow veterans in need. And it will be a living memorial for our fallen comrades."
Sojourn to the Past -  http://www.sojournproject.org/
Started as a project by a former school teacher to take students on historical tours of the sites associated with the civil rights movement in the souther U.S. this Web site: "Informs ... interested parties of Sojourn's national civil rights curriculum; informs ... funding sources in its capacity as an electronic grant application; draws national and local media attention to a positive story about a new generation of emerging thinkers and leaders As support for Sojourn continues to grow, its web site developers will be crafting an alumni services center, a civil rights library and museum, curriculum development and marketing cells and a communications hub for civil rights information."
Martin Luther King Jr. & the Civil Rights Movement -  http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/mlk/
This website gives traces the modern Black cicvil rights movement through the life of Martin Luther King Jr. (Seattle Times)
Greensboro Sit-Ins: Launch of a Civil Rights Movement - http://www.sitins.com/
"A new Web site launched Feb. 1, 1998, by The Depot and the Greensboro Public Library features — among other things — almost 100 audio clips from dozens of hours of recordings with sit-in participants [including the fourorganizers, the manager of Woolworth's, and Greensboro's mayor at the time]. Some of the recordings are recent — News & Record writer Jim Schlosser interviewed several figures this winter — but others are from recordings the Greensboro Public Library made almost 20 years ago."
Integration of Little Rock Central High School - On this page
March on Washington, 1963 - http://www.angelfire.com/pa/marchonwashington/
This website examines the history of the march and its significance to the civil rights movement.
Civil Rights in Mississippi Digital Archive Oral History Index - http://www.lib.usm.edu/~spcol/crda/oh/
This website is a detailed guide to over 900 oral history interviews about the civil rights movement in Mississippi.
Montgomery Bus Boycott - On this page
National Civil Rights Museum - http://www.civilrightsmuseum.org
"Created in December 1997, the purpose of this website is to support the National Civil Rights Museum's mission to educate and preserve the history of the Civil Rights Movement. Located at the Lorraine Motel, the site where Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated on April 4, 1968, the Museum houses interactive exhibits that trace the beginnings of the civil rights struggle."
Photo Tour of the Civil Rights Movement - http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/mlk/movement/PT/phototour.html
This Web site has a sampling of images from the national civil rights movement and events that happened in the Seattle area.
Powerful Days: The Civil Rights Photography of Charles Moore - http://www.civilrightsphotos.com/Pages/index2.html
This Web site has a a few photos by Charles Moore, who documented civil rights activity in the South. (John Kaplan)
Moore, Charles - http://www.kodak.com/US/en/corp/features/moore/mooreIndex.shtml
Kodak exhibits the civil rights movement photos of Charles Moore, including photos of Martin Luther King Jr.
Spartacus Encyclopedia: Civil Rights 1860-1980 - http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAcivilrights.htm
From a Web site which is an online encyclopedia of African America, this page has links to the people and events of the civil rights movement thoroughout U.S. history. Link lists are divided into: Campaigners: 1860-1900; Campaigners: 1900-1980; 1840-1900: Issues, Events & Organizations; and 1900-1980: Issues, Events & Organizations.
Stoughton High School Presents... Civil Rights - http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Olympus/3515/cvlrts2.html
This Web site was developed by a student at Stoughton (Mass.) H.S. The site has links to: Preconditions for racial change; The Montgomery Bus Boycott; Brown vs. The Board of Education; and Malcolm X. Includes photos. (Lee Schneider)
We Shall Overcome: Historic Places of the Civil Rights Movement-http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/civilrights/
This site on the National Register of Historic Places Web site provides a virtual tour of locations made famous in the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s. Includes clickable itinerary map of the United States.
Web Directory: Gateway to African American History: Struggle for Rights - http://charter.uchicago.edu/AAH/civilr.htm
From "A Gateway to African American History" Web site, this page provides links to the civil rights movement from 1940 to 1975. (North Kenwood/Oakland Charter School [Chicago])
Eyes on the Prize (Television Program) - http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/
The Web site of a television program produced for PBS in 1987 which documents the civil rights movement from 1954 to 1985. Links are included to the following topics: About the TV series; Video and more (image galleries, music, video, newspaper excerpts, other events); Primary sources; Profiles (people, groups, responses); Milestones; Reflections (personal essays and other comments from a variety of people connected with the Civil Rights Movement); Share your views; and, For teachers (includes a link to an online study guide by Facing History).
The African American Journey: The Modern Civil Rights Movement - http://www.worldbook.com/fun/aajourny/html/bh005.html
World Book Encyclopedia as produced this Web page as part of it's African American history site. Links are provided to the topics of: Civil Rights Organizations Since 1945; Protest and Civic Unrest; Civil Rights Laws and Legislation Since 1945; and African American Leaders Since 1945.
Douglass: Speeches and Documents Listed by Issue - http://douglass.speech.nwu.edu/bycontro.htm
Scroll down to the second topic on the page, "Civil Rights of African Americans," to get links to speeches from 1886 to 1998.
AOL: Black Voices (Search for civil + rights) - http://search.blackvoices.aol.com/blackvoices/bvs_search?query=civil+rights&invocationType=bv
Searching this website brings up articles on all aspects of civil rights. Google is searched simultaniously.

Supreme Court Cases    Return to Top

Brown v. Board of Education - http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html
"This project documents a selection of important events in African American history, beginning with the Dred Scott case in 1857 and ending with the implementation of school desegregation plans in the 1970s. The text is entirely original, culled from various school projects and papers that I wrote between 1995 and 1997. It is by no means complete -- there are some major gaps -- but I am providing it to the Internet community in hopes that future students will not have as much difficulty locating information about African American history as I did when I researched my projects." (Lisa Cozzens)
Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site - http://www.nps.gov/brvb/
commemorating the Supreme Court decision aimed at ending segregation in public schools, saying that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal."
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 40 Years Later - http://www.georgetown.edu/centers/woodstock/report/r-fea34.htm
new challenges in minority education.
Civil Rights: Brown v. Board of Education I (1954) - http://www.nationalcenter.org/brown.html
outline of the appeal of lower court decision, and the majority opinion of the Supreme Court.
Documents Related to Brown v. Board of Education - http://www.nara.gov/education/cc/brown.html
includes dissenting opinion, and a letter from then President Dwight D. Eisenhower. (U.S. National Archives)
Jefferson - Enlightenment: Brown v. Board of Education - http://www.pbs.org/jefferson/enlight/brown.htm
concerning racial segregation in public schools, and this Supreme Court decision.
Plessy v. Ferguson (FindLaw) - http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=163&invol=537
This site at Find Law includes full text of the majority and dissenting opinions of the Plessy v. Ferguson case.
Introduction to the Court Opinion on the Plessy v. Ferguson Case - http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/democrac/33.htm
This page, maintained by the U.S. State Dept., is part of basic readings in U.S. democracy.
NCTM: Plessy v. Ferguson - Segregated Coach - http://www.ci.salisbury.nc.us/nctrans/cars/1211info.htm
This site presents information about the case from the point of view of the transportation industry. The case involved "separate but equal" railroad transportation accommodations. (North Carolina Transportation Museum)
Sweatt v. Painter - http://www.houseofrussell.com/legalhistory/sweatt/
"In 1946, with the support of the NAACP, Heman Marion Sweatt applied for admission to The University of Texas School of Law.  The University registrar rejected his application because Sweatt was an African American and UT was a segregated institution. Sweatt, with NAACP counsel, sued. Although Sweatt lost in state court, the United States Supreme Court in 1950 ordered the integration of The University of Texas School of Law and also The University's Graduate School. This archive contains historical records linked to the Sweatt v. Painter litigation. These materials include university records, litigation materials, newspapers, and oral histories. For display, most of these records are text files, although some manuscripts are graphics files." From the website of Thomas D. Russell, a law professor and historian at the University of Denver, Sturm College of Law.
U.S. vs. Cecil Price - http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/FTrials/price&bowers/price&bowers.htm
This Web site has lots of infomation about the trial of those accused in killing three civil rights workers in Mississippi in 1964. Links are provided to: Chronology; In Quotes; Maps; Biographies; FBI Poster; KKK Documents; Transcript Excerpts; The Jury's Decision; Doar's Story; and the Supreme Court Decision; Images; "Mississippi Burning" (Movie); FBI's MIBURN file & Bibliography. This site is part of a "Famous Trials" database maintained by a University of Missouri-Kansas City Law School professor.

Integration of Little Rock Central High School        Return to Top

1957 Desegregation at Little Rock, Arkansas - http://www.sjbc.org/lr.htm
A time line of the desegregation of Central High School. (St. John's Baptist Church, Woburn, Mass.)
Central High - 40 Years Later - http://www.ardemgaz.com/prev/central/
Historic front pages from the Arkansas Democrat and Arkansas Gazette.
Clinton to Hold Door for 'Little Rock Nine' - http://www.cnn.com/US/9709/24/little.rock/
 A report of President Clinton's honoring the students who opened the Little Rock Central High School. Includes Quicktime movie and photo gallery. (CNN Interactive)
Integration of Little Rock Central High School - http://www.journalism.indiana.edu/gallery/faculty/counts/integration.html
This Web page has photographs of the famous desegregation battle. (Will Counts)
Little Rock 9, Integration 0? - http://www.kn.pacbell.com/wired/BHM/little_rock/home.html
This collaborative WebQuest is designed to get students to reflect on the impact of such events as the integration of Central High School to their own lives and American society in the twenty-first century. (Tom March)
Little Rock Central High 40th Anniversary - http://www.centralhigh57.org/
"Special activities in September, 1997, drew attention to the impact of the integration crisis that centered around Little Rock Central High School in 1957-58. President Clinton and the Little Rock Nine--the original nine black students at Central--joined others to participate in some of the 40th anniversary events taking place in the capital of Arkansas. Welcome to the home page of this significant page in American history. And don't forget to read The Tiger, the student newspaper, reprinted from its 1957-58 editions to get an idea of how the 2,000 students at Central faced the historic desegregation process from the inside. It's guaranteed to open your eyes. Plus, you can see the original front pages of Little Rock's two newspapers, the Arkansas Democrat and the Arkansas Gazette, as they are reproduced day by day from 40 years ago on the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette web site."
Little Rock - http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/blackhis/ltrock/ltrock.htm
Articles "produced by USIS to mark the 40th anniversary of the 1957 integration crisis at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. The highlight of a week-long commemoration in September 1997 was a visit by President Clinton to Little Rock and the President's Remarks at Central High on September 25." (Gateway to African-American History, U.S. Dept. of State, International Information Programs)
Little Rock: 40 Years Later - http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/specials/littlerock/little-rock-home.html
Primary source articles from the New York Times' archives. Includes links to articles about the Brown v. Board of Education decision which led to desegregation, articles which were published during the crisis and those which appeared in the newspaper on the one year anniversary. (The New York Times Learning Network)
Online NewsHour: Little Rock Anniversary - http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/race_relations/july-dec97/rock_9-25.html
This is the transcript of a program from September 25, 1997, the fortieth anniversary of Central High's desegregation, which appeared on the NewsHour. From this page you can also browse the Online NewsHour's coverage of U.S. race relations. (PBS)
School Integration in Little Rock, Arkansas - http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/school-integration/lilrock/
"Adapted from School Integration in the United States: Opposition to Integration, a web project written for my tenth grade African history class, as well as some additional outside research." Links on the site are provided to: Background; Governor Faubus Resists Integration; The Little Rock Nine Enter Central High; Eisenhower Sends Federal Troops; and Public Schools Shut Down. (Lisa Cozzens)

Montgomery Bus Boycott        Return to Top

Parks, Rosa - #Parks
Montgomery Bus Boycott - http://www.stanford.edu/group/King/about_king/encyclopedia/bus_boycott.html
"Sparked by Rosa Parks' arrest on 1 December 1955, the Montgomery bus boycott was an eleven-month mass protest that ended with the U.S. Supreme Court ruling that public bus segregation is unconstitutional." This brief essay discusses the boycott and the events surrounding the act. Includes a bibliography and links to related material. From the Martin Luther King Papers Project, Stanford University. Description (c) Librarian's Internet Index.
 
Montgomery Bus Boycott - http://www.montgomeryboycott.com/
This is a site sponsored by a newspaper in Montgomery, Alabama and includes a timeline, biographies, newspaper front pages, archived articles, profiles of boycott participants and witnesses, videoclips of interviews with participants, and articles about Rosa Parks.

Organizations    Return to Top

SNCC 1960-1966 - http://www.ibiblio.org/sncc/
This page examines the history of the first six years of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Includes links to a timeline, issues, people, other Web sites, and events.
Africana.com:Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee - http://www.africana.com/tt_515.htm
This is an article which discusses the history and influence of the civil rights group that played a major role in the 1960s campaign to end segregation in the southern United States. (Africana.com)
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (Encarta) - http://encarta.msn.com/index/conciseindex/4B/04BA1000.htm
This article from the online encyclopedia, provides a general profile SNCC. Includes two pictures: H. Rap Brown, and Voter Registration.
SNCC - http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAsncc.htm
This British Web site offers historical background and links as well as primary documents (Statement of Purpose, 1960 and Vietnam, 1968) about SNCC. (Spartacus Educational)
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee - http://www.stanford.edu/~ccarson/articles/black_women_3.htm
An article from Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia, analyzing of the role of African American women in SNCC. (Clayborne Carson and Heidi Hess)
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) - http://www.worldbook.com/fun/aajourny/html/bh087.html
This article offers background on the organization, a timeline and links to related articles. (World Book)
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) -  http://www.core-online.org/History/history.htm
recounts the organization's history and role in the Civil Rights Movement. Includes James Farmer, sit-ins, the March on Washington, and freedom rides.
Black Panther Party (Encyclopaedia Britannica) - http://blackhistory.eb.com/micro/71/76.html
Encyclopedia article about the Black Panther Party.
Black Panther Party:  Platform and Program October 1966 - http://www.cs.oberlin.edu/students/pjaques/etext/bpp-program.html
Subtitled "What we want and what we believe," this is the actual document which outlines what the famous organization, headquartered in Oakland, wanted to accomplish.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference - http://www.lexis-nexis.com/cispubs/guides/african_american/sclc/sclc1.htm#intro
This Web site provides an introduction to the SCLC. It is also a description of the "Papers" of the SCLC which can be accessed only through a commercial subscription. (Lexis-Nexis)

People   Return to Top

Julian Bond - http://www.naacp.org/about/bond.html
Julian Bond was the founder of SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, a member of the Georgia legislature for 20 years, and is currently the Chairman of the Board of the NAACP.
Ruby Bridges -
As a six-year-old in 1960, Ruby Bridges Hall was one of the children to integrate public schools in New Orleans.
Ralph Bunche, 1903-1971 -
Dr. Ralph Johnson Bunche was an African-American mediator and United Nations diplomat, and winner of a Nobel Peace Prize.
Shirley Chisholm, 1924- -
Shirley Chisholm was the first Black woman elected to Congress.
Eldridge Cleaver, 1935-1998 -
Eldridge Cleaver became known for preaching the doctrine of Black Power. According to this doctrine, blacks must organize politically so they can deal with white society from a position of strength. Cleaver was known for his prison memoir Soul on Ice (1968).
Anglea Davis, 1944- -
Angela Yvonne Davis was an African American political activist, philosopher, and educator whose imprisonment for murder generated worldwide protest.
Medgar Evers, 1925-1963 -
A long-time leader in the civil rights movement, Medgar Evers was ambushed and shot in the back by blast from a shotgun on June 12, 1963.
James Farmer - http://www.cets.sfasu.edu/Harrison/Farmer/medal.htm
"Farmer, a native of Marshall, [Texas,] is the founder of CORE - the Congress of Racial Equality - which was responsible for the Freedom Rides in the summer of 1961. Those bus rides testing the federal interstate transportation accommodations at bus terminals as well as other CORE-initiated non-violent activities led in part to the passage of the landmark Civil Rights Bill of 1964, and to the equally sweeping Civil Rights Voting Act the following year."
Jesse Jackson -
Civil rights worker and politician, he has run for the presidency several times.
Martin Luther King, Jr., 1929-1968 -
Patron saint of the civil rights movement, King was a Baptist clergyman who adopted nonviolent means of obtaining rights for Blacks based on the philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi. He was assassinated in 1968 in Memphis, Tenn.
Leonard P. Lynch -  http://www.byteland.org/terrylynch/lplynch.htm
Lt. Col. Lynch and 4,000 National Guard troops opened the road from Selma to Montgomery to enable Martin Luther King, Jr. and thousands to reach Montgomery on March 21-25, 1965.
Malcolm X, 1925-1965 -
Civil rights activist who went from being a small-time criminal to conversion to the Muslim faith and support for "Black Power." He was assassinated by one of his rivals in 1965.
Thurgood Marshall, 1908 - 1993 -
As a lawyer, he argued the Brown v. Board of Education before the Supreme Court. Later he was appointed to the Court by Lyndon B. Johnson in 1967 where he served until 1991.
Harry T. Moore, 1905-1951 -  http://www.pbs.org/harrymoore/
This is the companion site to the documentary "Freedom Never Dies: The Story of Harry T. Moore." Moore paved the way for the '60s civil rights movement by championing equal pay for black teachers, organizing the black vote, and publicly condemning racist attitudes and actions of local, state and national officials.
Rosa Parks: Yahoo! Directory -
Rosa Parks was the woman who, because she was tired after a hard day's work as a seamstress, refused to give her bus seat up to a white man. She was well respected in the black community for her work with the Montgomery Voters League as well as the NAACP. Her action, in Montgomery, Alabama, set off a bus boycott, bringing Martin Luther King, Jr. to prominence and leading to the U.S. Supreme Court outlawing segregation on city buses.
Rosa Parks Library and Museum - http://montgomery.troy.edu/museum/

This is the website of a museum in Montgomery, Alabama devoted to the life of Ms. Parks. Includes biographical information, photos, and links to more information about Parks and Montgomery, Alabama, history. From Troy University, Montgomery, Alabama.
Rosa Parks Bus at Henry Ford Museum - http://www.hfmgv.org/exhibits/rosaparks/default.asp
"On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a 42-year-old African American woman who worked as a seamstress, boarded ... [a] Montgomery City bus to go home from work. On this bus on that day, Rosa Parks initiated a new era in the American quest for freedom and equality." This site provides information about the restoration of this historic bus and images of the bus. Also includes a chronology, a bibliography, and links to additional information. From the Henry Ford Museum. (c) Librarian's Internet Index
Bayard Rustin, 1912-1987 - http://www.rustin.org/
"A master strategist and tireless activist, Bayard Rustin is best remembered as the organizer of the 1963 March on Washington, one of the largest nonviolent protests ever held in the United States. He brought Gandhi’s protest techniques to the American civil rights movement, and helped mold Martin Luther King, Jr. into an international symbol of peace and nonviolence. Despite these achievements, Rustin was silenced, threatened, arrested, beaten, imprisoned and fired from important leadership positions, largely because he was an openly gay man in a fiercely homophobic era."
The Death of Emmett Till - http://members.aol.com/deverysa/index.html
Emmet Till was 14-year-old black boy from Chicago who was murdered for a remark he made to a white woman in a small town in Mississippi in 1955.
Kwame Ture (Stokely Carmichael), 1941-1998 -
Better known by his given name, Ture rose to national prominence in the 1960s as an organizer of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, participating in sit-ins, freedom rides and numerous demonstrations of non-violent civil disobedience.
Roy Wilkins, 1901-1981 -
Civil rights leader from St. Paul, Minn. Wilkins worked for the NAACP from 1931, serving as its executive secretary for 22 years from 1955 to 1977.


From: California History-Social Science Standards 11th Grade: United States History and Geography: Continuity and Change in the Twentieth Century
11.10 Students analyze the development of federal civil rights and voting rights.

  • 1.    Explain how demands of African Americans helped produce a stimulus for civil rights, including President Roosevelt's ban on racial discrimination in defense industries in 1941, and how African Americans' service in World War II produced a stimulus for President Truman's decision to end segregation in the armed forces in 1948.

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  • 2.    Examine and analyze the key events, policies, and court cases in the evolution of civil rights, including Dred Scoff v. Sandford, Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Board of Education, Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, and California Proposition 209.

  •  
  • 3.    Describe the collaboration on legal strategy between African American and white civil rights lawyers to end racial segregation in higher education.

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  • 4.    Examine the roles of civil rights advocates (e.g., A. Philip Randolph, Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcom X, Thurgood Marshall, James Farmer, Rosa Parks), including the significance of Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "Letter from Birmingham Jail" and "I Have a Dream" speech.

  •  
  • 5.    Discuss the diffusion of the civil rights movement from the churches of the rural South and the urban North, including the resistance to racial desegregation in Little Rock and Birmingham, and how the advances influenced the agendas, strategies, and effectiveness of the quests of American Indians, Asian Americans, and Hispanic Americans for civil rights and equal opportunities.

  •  
  • 6.    Analyze the passage and effects of civil rights and voting rights legislation (e.g., 1964 Civil Rights Act, Voting Rights Act of 1965) and the Twenty-Fourth Amendment, with an emphasis on equality of access to education and to the political process.


  • Lesson Plans

    Civil Rights Demonstration Lesson Plan -  http://www.virtualscholar.com/cr/
    These lesson plans for grades 7 through 12 feature background information on such topics as Brown vs. Board of Education, the desegregation of Little Rock, and the Freedom Bus Rides.
    Supreme Court Rules on School Desegregation - http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1982/3/82.03.06.x.html
    This Web page is a series of lesson plans "organized for students with a high school reading level. Since 1982, when I prepared it, it has been used as a segment of a course at the High School in the Community, an inner city magnet high school which is teacher run and very supportive to teacher initiated curriculum. I first used the unit as the history half of an interdisciplinary course in English and history. The English component focused on forming opinions and writing essays. The class meet daily for three hours. I have since used this unit in conjunction with other subjects such as statistics and poll making, drama in the courtroom, and philosophy as reflected in various legal systems throughout history. Since this course has proven to be very stimulating for the students, I have also expanded it into a larger course on the American Legal System. (Karen Wolff, Yale-New Haven [Conn.] Teachers Institute)
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